SÜDAFRIKA: SCHWARZES LIFE-STYLE MAGAZIN DRUM WIRD 60 – Drum, le mythique magazine du glamour noir sud-africain, a 60 ans

Drum, die legendäre Glamour-Zeitschrift der schwarzen Südafrikaner ist 60 Jahre alt
JOHANNESBURG (AFP) – 2011.12.12 09.16
In südafrikanischen Museen erinnern die vergilbten Cover des Magazins Drum an eine urbane schwarze Kultur von Mode und Jazz, die mit der Zerstörung des berühmten Viertels Sophiatown, das die Behörden der Apartheid als zu kosmopolitisch empfunden hatten, verschwand. Drum ist nun 60. In der Phantasie der Südafrikaner aber ist das Magazin noch eng mit Sophiatown verbunden…..
DEUTSCH (VON MIR ETWAS VERBESSERTE GOOGLE-ÜBERSETZUNG) WEITER UNTER DEM GELBEN KASTEN MIT DEN BEIDEN ENGLISCHEN ARTIKELN

Drum, le mythique magazine du glamour noir sud-africain, a 60 ans
JOHANNESBURG (AFP) – 12.12.2011 09:16
Dans les musées sud-africains, les couvertures jaunies du magazine Drum évoquent une culture urbaine noire faite de mode et de jazz, disparue avec la destruction du célèbre quartier de Sophiatown que les autorités de l’apartheid jugeaient bien trop cosmopolite. Drum a aujourd’hui 60 ans. Dans l’imaginaire des Sud-Africains pourtant, le magazine reste intimement lié à Sophiatown.

Un exemplaire du magazine sud-africain Drum qui fête ses 60 ans
Foto (c) AFP: Jubiläumsexemplar des südafrikanischen Drum-Magazin, das 60 Jahre feiert
Un exemplaire du magazine sud-africain Drum qui fête ses 60 ans
Des habitants de Sophiatown le 21 février 1955, avant leur évacuation
Foto (c) AFP: Bewohner von Sophiatown 21. Februar 1955, vor der Evakuierung
Des habitants de Sophiatown le 21 février 1955, avant leur évacuation

Ce remuant quartier de Johannesburg fut vidé de ses habitants et rasé entre 1955 et 1960, avant d’être repeuplé de Blancs et rebaptisé Triomf (Triomphe, en afrikaans).
“Même alors que les bulldozers du gouvernement faisaient tomber ses maisons, Sophiatown engendra une floraison culturelle inégalée dans l’histoire de l’Afrique du Sud”, note David D. Coplan, spécialiste d’anthropologie culturelle à l’université du Witwatersrand.
“Le quartier donnait le ton, le pouls, le rythme et le style d’une culture urbaine africaine des années 1940 et 1950”, ajoute-t-il dans son ouvrage “In Township Tonight!”, citant les journalistes de Drum.
Ces derniers furent, selon lui, “les auteurs du journalisme, de la nouvelle satire, du commentaire politique et social et de la critique musicale les plus en quête d’innovation que l’Afrique du Sud ait jamais connus”.
Henry Nxumalo, dit “Mr Drum”, fut sans doute le plus célèbre. Il a été assassiné par des inconnus en 1957, alors qu’il enquêtait sur des avorteurs. Sa vie a été portée au grand écran en 2004, dans un film logiquement appelé “Drum”.
La culture de Sophiatown était fascinée par les États-Unis, et symbolisée par des cabriolets pilotés par d’élégants gangsters. Les habitants anglophones appelaient fièrement leur quartier “Little Harlem”.
Et, comme son modèle new-yorkais, ce bout de ville d’environ 70.000 habitants bruissait de jazz. Avec des grands noms comme Miriam Makeba, Dolly Rathebe, Dollar Brand ou Hugh Masekela.
Sur place, au milieu des modestes pavillons de banlieue construits sur les ruines du mythique quartier, un petit musée entretient la flamme du souvenir. Murs peints et photos de Drum à l’appui.
“Sophiatown était un endroit qui vibrait, il y avait de la vie à Sophiatown, tout se passait là!”, s’enthousiasme Mbali Zwane, la jeune guide pour qui le quartier était clairement plus excitant que les froides townships où le régime d’apartheid a relégué les populations de couleur, loin en périphérie.
“Il y a une romantisation de Sophiatown, liée à une certaine nostalgie”, tempère Noor Nieftagodien, historien à l’université du Witwatersrand. “On a gardé le souvenir d’un quartier multiracial… même si l’immense majorité de la population était noire”.
Sophiatown n’était pas un paradis, rappelle-t-il: la plupart des habitants étaient pauvres, souvent exploités par des propriétaires peu scrupuleux, et les taudis étaient nombreux.
Quant au fameux magazine, “une bonne partie des journalistes qui écrivaient pour Drum appartenaient à une élite de la classe moyenne bien particulière. Pour eux, Sophiatown était une sorte de monde glamour, mais c’était leur microcosme”, relativise l’historien.
Reste que l’arbitre des élégances des années 1950 a bien changé.
Drum s’est peu à peu transformé en mensuel d’information très axé sur l’image. Et puis le titre a été racheté en 1984 par le puissant groupe de médias Naspers, à l’époque fidèle soutien de l’apartheid.
Le titre est maintenant devenu la version pour lecteurs noirs du duo de magazines féminins plutôt bas de gamme du groupe, formé par You (en anglais) et Huisgenoot (en afrikaans). Riche en potins.
Mais si les actuelles versions en anglais et en zoulou n’ont plus rien à voir avec le glamour d’antan, le numéro spécial du soixantième anniversaire est un hymne à l’esprit de Sophiatown.
© 2011 AFP

1. Drum magazine turns 60

Photojournalist Alf Kumalo who was part of the Drum team in the early years was honoured with Drum's Photojournalist Alf Kumalo who was part of the Drum team in the early years was honoured with Drum’s “living Legend” award. Kumalo’s photograph “A Mother Remembers”, above, shows Nelson Mandela’s mother and his children looking at a portrait of the imprisoned leader.

Drum honours legendary South Africans

Mediaonline reports that, “In honour of its 60 year history, and its undoubted importance in the lives of so many South Africans, the awards, DRUM honoured legends, past and present, with a selection of prestigious awards that went to icons in the South African history.”

Posthumous, in recognition of a DRUM legend who is no longer with us – Dolly Rathebe, the first ever DRUM pin-up girl.

Living Legend, a legend still delivering the DRUM beat – Legendary photographer, Alf Khumalo.

Timeless Beauty, always and forever a favourite – jazz musician Thandi Klaasen.

Rising Star, someone who has inspired us and readers – actress and singer Thembi Seete.

Ubuntu Award, where we say “siyabonga” to those who have made a difference – Gcina Mhlope

Couple To Look Up To, an award to show that we believe family is the backbone of our society – musicians Caiphus Semenya and Letta Mbulu.

Behind The Scenes, in recognition of those who are never in the limelight but whose work has an impact on our lives – creator of the much loved soapie Generations, Mfundi Vundla.

DRUM icon, someone whose work and sacrifice is our heritage – the legendary Winnie Mandela.

Source: Mediaonline website

Drum cover, May 1956 Drum cover, May 1956

Africa Media Online has alerted us to the fact that Drum magazine turns 60 this month!

Commemorative edition to be published in November 2011

Media24 Weekly Magazines will also be publishing DRUM 60th, a glossy commemorative magazine.

“DRUM 60 will bring together all the elements that make this title one of the best in South Africa, highlighting not only important moments in the magazine’s and South Africa’s history but also showcasing the characters behind DRUM. It is a fusion of experience and experiences,” says DRUM editor, Makhosazana Zwane-Siguqa.

“I have ensured our new generation of authors, journalists and social commentators have been well represented in the magazine. For me it is very important to illustrate how DRUM journalists of old inspired and motivated my peers to be what we are. Zukiswa Wanner, Lebo Mashile, Mike Nicol and Simphiwe Danaare just some of the bylines and names that lent us their voices in the compilation of this issue.”

Readers can look forward to stories about legendary journalists such as Henry Nxumalo, Nat Nakasa and Can Themba. There are articles about the issues the magazine has covered from life in Sophiatown to forced removals and apartheid race laws to memorable short stories and photo stories. And, of course, there are reprints of classic DRUM covers featuring legends such as Dolly Rathebe.Coupled with stunning pictures by photographers such as Peter Magubane, Alf Kumalo and Jürgen Schadeberg, this publication is a keepsake for DRUM readers.

DRUM 60 will be available in stores countrywide by the end of November.

Source: Drum magazine website

Drum was first published in Cape Town in March 1951 under the title African Drum by Bob Crisp. This venture was not successful and the magazine moved to Johannesburg in Sepetmebr 1951 under a new publisher, Jim Bailey. Drum flourished, eventually achieving a circulation of 400,000 copies distributed not only in South Africa but also in Ghana, Nigeria and East Africa.

Speaking of the his experiences as editor of Drum in Johannesburg in the 1950s, Anthony Sampson says, “Of all South Africa;s cities, Johannesburg was the chief magnet. The gold mines below and around the city absorbed thousands of contract workers. They arrived from the rural areas to be kept in batchelor compounds. Then, months later they were sent back to their homes when their contracts expired. This world existed alongside a much more sophisticated black Johannesburg of shebeens, dancehalls, snappy dressers – where life was lived fast, and on the streets. And it was this world which provided much of the creative talent in the magazine Drum

The few staff members in the early years read like a roll call of South African greats: Henry Nxumalo the sports editor, later known as “Mr. Drum”, Todd Matshikiza, a writer who was celebrated for his wit, and employed as the music reviewer, Can Themba, Ezekiel Mphahlele, Nat Nakasa, Lewis Nkosi, Doc Bikitsha and a host of other writers contributed to the magazine. Jurgen Schadeberg, an investigative photographer, later became the photo editor of the magazine. Bob Gosani who joined Drum as a messenger and became one of the magazine’s best photographers. Peter Magubane was hired as a driver transferred to the photographic department where he was joined by Ernest Cole, Alf Kumalo, Victor Xashimba, Gopal Naransamy, Chester Maharaj, GR Naidoo and others.

In his forward to Jurgen Schadeberg’s book, Softown Blues: Images from the black ‘50s, Arthur Maimane explains how Drum walked a fine line in dealing with the subject of apartheid. ” Drum could not confront apartheid head-on because it would be banned – as other publications were to be over the following years. The strategy it developed, starting in its first birthday issue. was to expose the evils of the racist system without actually condemning official policy.”

Doc Bikitsha, also writing in Schadeberg’s publication speaks of the ‘golden age of black journalism’ and the way in which the writers of the 50s recorded the ‘glory and triumph’ of an age when, ” black people underwent changes for the good that surpassed anything in their history so far”. He also draws attention to the serious side of this ‘enlightened period’ saying that, ” politically we witnessed the emergence of characters like Oliver Tambo, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Duma Nokwe. Robert Sobukwe and many more with outstanding leadership traits.”

While Drum opposed racism and apartheid, some of the key events of the Liberation Struggle were not published. Jim Bailey did not approve the publication of any reports or photographs of the Sharpeville massacre, nor the terrible work and living conditions of migrant workers on the mines and the magazine has been criticised in recent years for not reporting widely enough on the political events of the time.

In the 1980s Drum was sold to the media giant Nasionale Pers and although it still exists and is widely sold, it’s not the magazine it once was.

The Baileys African History Archive which houses the Drum collection contains a wealth of information from politics to culture and complexities of the vast Anglophone African nations it includes the following:

Drum: South Africa 1951-1984 Post: South Africa 1955-1970
Drum: East Africa 1957-1992 Trust: West Africa 1971-1980
Drum: West Africa 1954-1958 Trust: East Africa 1971 – 1980
Drum: Nigeria 1958 -1982 True Love: South Africa 1980 – 1984
Drum: Ghana 1958-1972 True Love: East Africa 1980-1992
Drum: Central Africa 1960-1967 City Press: South Africa 1982-1984

To view, or purchase images from the Drum archive see Bailey’s African History Archives website or the Africamediaonline website

For more information on the history of Drum see the South African History Online website.

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2. Iconic Drum magazine turns 60

Attention: open in a new window.03 November 2011

Ray Maota

Thandie Klassen (middle) being greeted
by jazz supremo Sipho “Hotstix” Mabuse,
receives the Timeless Beauty honour
from musician Arthur Mafokate.

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the ex-wife
of former president Nelson Mandela,
received the Drum Icon honour.
(Images: Drum)

MEDIA CONTACTS
• Makhosazana Zwane-Siguqa
Drum: Editor
+27 11 322 0877

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The world-famous South African magazine Drum, which gave early momentum to the African nationalist movement and produced renowned journalists and photographers, has turned 60 years old.

The publication celebrated its coverage of six decades of South African history at a ceremony at Emperor’s Palace, east of Johannesburg, on 26 October 2011.

Guests who attended the event included Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, former Bafana Bafana captain Lucas Radebe, and fashion designer and socialite Uyanda Mbuli.

The celebrations honoured local legends who were and still are an integral part of the magazine. A glossy commemorative edition will hit the shelves at the end of November.

Current Drum editor Makhosazana Zwane-Siguqa said: “Drum 60 will bring together all the elements that make this title one of the best in South Africa, highlighting not only important moments in the magazine and South Africa’s history, but also showcasing the characters behind Drum. It is a fusion of experience and experiences.”

Zwane-Siguqa added that the new generation of writers have been well represented in the commemorative edition to show how they have been influenced and inspired by Drum‘s first team of legendary contributors, including Henry Nxumalo, Nat Nakasa, Ezekiel “Es’kia” Mphahlele, Can Themba and Mike Nicol.

Featured work from the new Drum generation comes from author Zukiswa Wanner, poet and author Lebo Mashile, and singer and poet Simphiwe Dana.

The Drum beat

Drum was first published by Bob Crisp in Cape Town in March 1951, under the title African Drum.

Sales were slow at first, so the magazine’s team moved to Johannesburg in September of the same year. Jim Bailey took over as publisher.

Its editorial focus at that time included investigative pieces, crime and lifestyle stories, as well as fashion and music, with a strong jazz influence.

Reflecting the spirit of the multicultural and racially mixed Sophiatown suburb in the early days of apartheid, the magazine’s cover regularly featured celebrated black South African women like musicians Dolly Rathebe and Miriam Makeba.

Although the magazine opposed racism and apartheid policy, it didn’t publish inflammatory material that the then government would have reason to ban.

‘Part of our legacy’

The recent celebrations included a series of awards, titled Living Legend, Posthumous, Timeless Beauty, Rising Star, Ubuntu award, Couple to look up to, Behind the scenes, and Drum icon.

The Living Legend category went to former Drum photographer Alf Khumalo, who is still active in the discipline today and showcases his work at his museum in Diepkloof, Soweto.

Khumalo said: “I felt greatly honoured, I didn’t expect it, but I think it’s a wonderful reward.”

Jazz musician Thandie Klassen was named the Timeless Beauty and the posthumous award was given to Rathebe, the magazine’s first pin-up model.

Singer and actress Thembi Seete, who was a member of the now defunct kwaito group Boom Shaka, was given the Rising Star award – while poet and author Gcina Mhlophe took the Ubuntu award.

Although not always being in the public eye, but having greatly impacted society, Mfundi Vundla won the Behind the scenes award. Vundla is the creator of local soapie Generations.

The Couple to look up to award was given to music power couple Caiphus Semenya and Letta Mbuli, who have been married for 46 years.

The Drum icon award went to Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the ex-wife of former president Nelson Mandela.

Zwane-Siguqa said: “Without them, there would be nothing to write in Drum. They are as much part of our rich history as are our journalists, our photographers and our legacy – it is in fact because of them that we have this legacy.”

END

Drum, die legendäre Glamour-Zeitschrift der schwarzen Südafrikaner ist 60 Jahre alt
JOHANNESBURG (AFP) – 2011.12.12 09.16
In südafrikanischen Museen erinnern die vergilbten Cover des Magazins Drum an eine urbane schwarze Kultur von Mode und Jazz, die mit der Zerstörung des berühmten Viertels Sophiatown, das die Behörden der Apartheid als zu kosmopolitisch empfunden hatten, verschwand. Drum ist nun 60. In der Phantasie der Südafrikaner aber ist das Magazin noch eng mit Sophiatown verbunden.
Das aufrührende Johannesburger Viertel wurde von seinen Bewohnern geräumt und dem Erdboden gleichgemacht zwischen 1955 und 1960, bevor es wieder bevölkert wurde von Weißen und umbenannt in Triomf (Triumph, in Afrikaans).
“Selbst wenn die Regierungsbulldozer fielen über die Häuser, zeugte Sophiatown eine kulturelle Blüte ohnegleichen in der Geschichte Südafrikas”, sagte David D. Coplan, ein Spezialist für Kulturanthropologie an der Universität von Witwatersrand.
“Der Bezirk hatte Ton, Puls, Rhythmus und Stil einer afrikanischen städtischen Kultur der 1940er und 1950er Jahren gesetzt”, sagt er in seinem Buch “In Township Tonight!” , unter Berufung auf die Journalisten von Drum.
Diese waren, sagte er, “die Autoren von Nachrichten, Satire, politische Kommentare und soziale und musikalische Kritik die am meisten jemals in Südafrika auf der Suche nach Innovationen waren.”
Henry Nxumalo, sagte: “Mister Drum”, war wohl der berühmteste. Er wurde von unbekannten Personen im Jahr 1957 ermordet, während seiner Recherche über Abtreiberinnen. Sein Leben war auf die große Leinwand gebracht im Jahr 2004 in einem Film, logischerweise “Drum” getitelt.
Die Kultur in Sophiatown war von den Vereinigten Staaten fasziniert, und symbolisiert durch Cabrios eleganter Gangster. Das englischesprachige Volk mit Stolz nannte ihre Nachbarschaft “Little Harlem”.
Und wie sein Vorbild in New York, dieses Stück Stadt mit etwa 70.000 Einwohnern tönte den Jazz. Mit großen Namen wie Miriam Makeba, Dolly Rathebe, Dollar Brand und Hugh Masekela.
Vor Ort, in der Mitte des bescheidenen Vorortes mit Häusern auf den Ruinen des legendären Stadtteils gebaut, hält ein kleines Museum die Flamme der Erinnerung hoch.
“Sophiatown war ein lebendiger Ort, das Leben in Sophiatown vibrierte, alles passierte da!”, freut sich Mbali Zwane, eine junge Touristenführerin für das Gebiet – das war eindeutig aufregender für sie als die kalten Townships, wo das Regime Apartheid hatte farbige Menschen weit in die Peripherie verbannt.
“Es gibt eine Romantisierung von Sophiatown, mit einer gewissen Nostalgie verbunden”, mildert Nieftagodien Noor, Historiker an der Universität von Witwatersrand. “Wir halten die Erinnerung an eine multi-ethnische Nachbarschaft … obwohl die überwiegende Mehrheit der Bevölkerung war schwarz.”
Sophiatown war nicht ein Paradies, erinnert er sich: Die meisten Menschen waren arm, oft von skrupellosen Großgrundbesitzern ausgebeutet, und Slums waren zahlreich.
Wie bei der berühmten Zeitschrift, “viele der Journalisten, die für Drum schrieben, waren aus einer kleinen Elite der Mittelklasse. Für sie war Sophiatown eine Art Glamour-Welt, aber es war ihr Mikrokosmos”, relativiert der Historiker.
Inzwischen hat sich der Schiedsrichter der Mode in den 1950er Jahren verändert.
Drum hat sich allmählich verwandelt in ein Monatsmagazin, sehr auf das Bild konzentriert. Und der Titel wurde im Jahr 1984 vom mächtigen Medienkonzern Naspers erworben, zum Zeitpunkt ein fester Unterstützer der Apartheid.
Der Titel ist mittlerweile die schwarze Version für die Leser des Frauenzeitschriften-Duos, eher Low-End-Gruppe, bestehend aus You (Englisch) und Huisgenoot (in Afrikaans). Reich an Klatsch.
Aber wenn auch die aktuellen Versionen in Englisch und Zulu nichts mit dem Glamour vergangener Zeiten zu tun haben, ist die spezielle Ausgabe des sechzigsten Jahrestages eine Hymne auf den Geist von Sophiatown.
© 2011 AFP

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